Researchers and practitioners consider some factors as "static", such as age, number of prior sex offenses, victim gender, relationship to the victim, and indicators of psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal , and some other factors as "dynamic", such as an offender's compliance with supervision and treatment. In some jurisdictions especially in the United States , information in the registry is made available to the public via a website or other means. However, in other localities, the complete lists are not available to the general public but are known to the police. Despite the public perception of sex offenders as having high recidivism, sex offenders had the second lowest recidivism rate, after only murderers, but sex offenders were about four times more likely than non-sex offenders to be arrested for another sex crime after their discharge from prison. More than half of the children of sex offenders say that fellow students treat them worse due to a parent's RSO status. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. Several challenges to some parts of state level sex offender laws have succeeded, however.
United Kingdom[ edit ] In the United Kingdom, the Violent and Sex Offender Register ViSOR is a database of records of those required to register with the Police under the Sexual Offences Act , those jailed for more than 12 months for violent offences, and unconvicted people thought to be at risk of offending. It will also include individuals who have been granted name suppression. Sex offenders who have completed probation or parole may also be subject to restrictions above and beyond those of most felons. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. In New York specifically, kidnapping and unlawful imprisonment are registerable offenses only if the victim is under 17 and the offender is not a parent of the victim. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. In some states, they may also be barred from voting after a sentence has been completed and, at the federal level, barred from owning firearms, like all felons. Since passage of the Adam Walsh Act , Walsh himself has criticized the law, stating "You can't paint sex offenders with a broad brush. Civil right groups,   law reform activists,    academics,   some child safety advocates,       politicians  and law enforcement officials  think that current laws often target the wrong people, swaying attention away from high-risk sex offenders, while severely impacting lives of all registrants,     and their families,   attempting to re-integrate to society. This is contrary to media depictions of stranger assaults or child molesters who kidnap children unknown to them. The term sexual predator is often used to describe a sex offender or any of the "tier offenders"; however, only the category just below sexually-violent sexual predator is reserved for a severe or repeated sex offender: Some states have disclosed some of Tier I offenders,  while in some states all Tier I offenders are excluded from public disclosure. Many aspects of the laws are criticised by reformists and civil right groups like National RSOL  and Human Right Watch ,   and treatment professionals as Atsa. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. Sex offender registries in the United States consist of federal and state level systems designed to collect information of convicted sex offenders for law enforcement and public notification purposes. Like the Australian and British registers, the New Zealand sex offenders register will not be accessible to the general public but only to officials with security clearance. Thus, identical offenses committed in different states could produce very different outcomes in terms of public disclosure and registration period. The study also showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher molestation rates than blocks where sex offenders did not live. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. Some states have Civic Confinement laws, which allow very-high-risk sex offenders to be placed in secure facilities, "in many ways like prisons", where they are supposed to be offered treatment and regularly reevaluated for possible release. In the United States, the United Kingdom , and other countries, a convicted sex offender is often required to register with the respective jurisdiction's sex offender registry. In many jurisdictions, registered sex offenders are subject to additional restrictions including housing. A study by professors from Columbia University and the University of Michigan found that having police-only sex offender registries e. It results in a year re-offense rate of less than 2. The results of the study were that sex offender recidivism was, in fact, slightly lower in states where sex offenders were not required to register.
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'It's been hell,' convicted sex offender speaks about registry
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