Definitive mechanisms should be established to inform patients of their test results. Easily understood informational materials should be made available in the languages of the commonly encountered populations within the service area. Two key strategies of this initiative are 1 to make HIV testing a routine part of medical care on the same voluntary basis as other diagnostic and screening tests and 2 to reduce perinatal transmission of HIV further by universal testing of all pregnant women and by using rapid tests during labor and delivery or postpartum if the mother was not screened prenatally And that obsession leads to overwhelming fears and insecurities… which leads into neediness… which leads into acting desperate and making mistakes that drive the guy away. A second HIV test during the third trimester is recommended for women who meet one or more of the following criteria: HIV test results should be provided in the same manner as results of other diagnostic or screening tests. Persons known to be at high risk for HIV infection also should be advised of the need for periodic retesting and should be offered prevention counseling or referred for prevention counseling.
Repeat Screening Health-care providers should subsequently test all persons likely to be at high risk for HIV at least annually. Pregnant women should receive oral or written information that includes an explanation of HIV infection, a description of interventions that can reduce HIV transmission from mother to infant, and the meanings of positive and negative test results and should be offered an opportunity to ask questions and to decline testing. They may even lose interest. Summary These recommendations for human immunodeficiency virus HIV testing are intended for all health-care providers in the public and private sectors, including those working in hospital emergency departments, urgent care clinics, inpatient services, substance abuse treatment clinics, public health clinics, community clinics, correctional health-care facilities, and primary care settings. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that clinicians obtain information from adolescent patients regarding their sexual activity and inform them how to prevent HIV infection Recent studies demonstrate that voluntary HIV screening is cost-effective even in health-care settings in which HIV prevalence is low 26,27, Going back to the whole issue of giving a guy space. Repeat screening of persons not likely to be at high risk for HIV should be performed on the basis of clinical judgment. Specific signed consent for HIV testing should not be required. Prevention strategies that incorporate universal HIV screening have been highly effective. Glynn M, Rhodes P. Access to clinical care, prevention counseling, and support services is essential for persons with positive HIV test results. HIV screening should be included in the routine panel of prenatal screening tests for all pregnant women. Health-care providers in acute-care settings were encouraged to structure counseling and testing procedures to facilitate confidential, voluntary participation and to include basic information regarding the medical implications of the test, the option to receive more information, and documentation of informed consent Compared with HIV testing after patients were admitted to the hospital, expedited diagnosis by rapid HIV testing in the ED before admission led to shorter hospital stays, increased the number of patients aware of their HIV status before discharge, and improved entry into outpatient care HIV diagnostic testing or screening to detect HIV infection earlier should be considered distinct from HIV counseling and testing conducted primarily as a prevention intervention for uninfected persons at high risk. HIV screening should be discussed with all adolescents and encouraged for those who are sexually active. Pregnant women should receive appropriate health education, including information regarding HIV and its transmission, as a routine part of prenatal care. Prevention counseling should not be required as a part of HIV screening programs in health-care settings. In health-care settings, prevention counseling need not be linked explicitly to HIV testing. Active efforts are essential to ensure that HIV-infected patients receive their positive test results and linkage to clinical care, counseling, support, and prevention services. Screening is a basic public health tool used to identify unrecognized health conditions so treatment can be offered before symptoms develop and, for communicable diseases, so interventions can be implemented to reduce the likelihood of continued transmission No effective treatment existed, and counseling was designed in part to ensure that persons tested were aware that the meaning of positive test results was uncertain. HIV-negative test results may be conveyed without direct personal contact between the patient and the health-care provider. These recommendations are intended for clinicians who provide care to pregnant women and newborns and for health policy makers who have responsibility for these populations. Similarities and Differences Between Current and Previous Recommendations for Adults and Adolescents Aspects of these recommendations that remain unchanged from previous recommendations are as follows: A more intensive intervention among HIV-negative MSM at high risk, consisting of 10 theory-based individual counseling sessions followed by maintenance sessions every 3 months, resulted in reductions in unprotected sex with partners who were HIV infected or of unknown status, compared with MSM who received structured prevention counseling only twice yearly
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